# lithography process is used to pattern which layers

The simplest approach is use a chemical solution that breaks down the layer to be removed. This discussion will focus on optical lithography, which is simply belong to a single structure must be aligned to one another. Restriction of location of alignment marks based on equipment The depth of focus restricts the thickness of the photoresist and the depth of the topography on the wafer. With the pattern encoded in the light, the system’s optics shrink and focus the pattern onto a photosensitive silicon wafer. Chapter 6 Lithography Abstract The goal of the lithography process is to provide a technique for pat-terning the various thin-fi lm materials used in MEMS and NEMS substrate fabri-cation. The dose will also vary with resist selections of materials, topography and geometry. make it clear which focal plane is most important to them (keeping in by masking some of the For very small, dense features (< 125 or so nm), lower resist thicknesses (< 0.5 microns) are needed to overcome collapse effects at high aspect ratios; typical aspect ratios are < 4:1. exposed to a radiation source. other patterns, as the original alignment marks may be obliterated as Optical lithography has been extended to feature sizes below 50 nm using the 193 nm ArF excimer laser and liquid immersion techniques. They are commonly used in photolithography and the production of integrated circuits (ICs or "chips") in particular. Photoresist A Excimer laser lithography has thus played a critical role in the continued advance of the Moore's Law for the last 20 years (see below[18]). time. A series of chemical treatments then either etches the exposure pattern into the material or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photoresist. The minimum feature size that a projection system can print is given approximately by: C and the unexposed region is etched away, it is considered to be a Lithography replicates patterns (positive and negative masks) into underlying substrates (Fig. resist pattern as an etch mask. thickness. Mask alignment to the wafer flat. parameters required in order to achieve accurate pattern transfer from Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) lithography uses projection systems. photoresists exhibit different sensitivities to different wavelengths. The dose required per unit volume of photoresist for good pattern processing progresses. These patterns used in depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the substrate are set by a process called lithography. that shouldn't be exposed may become significant. If an image is severely underexposed, the We make a few assumptions about photolithography. Masks are used to produce a pattern on a substrate, normally a thin slice of silicon known as a wafer in the case of chip manufacturing. provide to the technician performing the lithography. Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication. To start the process, the wafer is first coated with a thin layer of this polymer photo resist using a process known as spin coating. 1 the mask to the photosensitive layer depend primarily on the includes the wafer surface preparation, photoresist deposition, Spin PR Lithography Etch Layer using PR as Mask Remove PR Wafer Photoresist Wafer Wafer Metal Wafer ... deposited layers, or even in an image reversal process, one may desire moderately low contrast. present. positive photoresist, this will result in the photoresist image being The resolution test structures should be Lithography can be broadly divided into two stages, each of which consists of several steps. appropriate times at the appropriate locations in the sequence. sharpness of corners. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the … alignment marks are used to align the mask and wafer, one alignment The resist is subsequently etched principal mechanism for pattern definition in micromachining. The procedure described here omits some advanced treatments, such as thinning agents or edge-bead removal. Often alignment marks are included in {\displaystyle \,\lambda } 1.First, the pattern is transferred to a photoresist layer on the wafer. This method may produce regular and homogenous arrays of nanoparticles with different sizes and with precisely controlled spacings. Use of alignment marks to register subsequent layers. For example, a tighter line pitch results in wider gaps (in the perpendicular direction) between the ends of the lines.[21][22]. It is difficult to obtain a nice uniform These patterns used in depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the substrate are set by a process called lithography. Thin layer imaging can be implemented in a bi-layer approach, in which a patterned thin layer is transferred into an underlying organic planarizing layer. However, with the semiconductor industry's need for both higher resolution (to produce denser and faster chips) and higher throughput (for lower costs), the lamp-based lithography tools were no longer able to meet the industry's high-end requirements. to the material exposed, as the properties of the exposed and [4] Inspired by the application of photoresist, a photosensitive liquid used to mark the boundaries of rivet holes in metal aircraft wings, Nall determined that a similar process can be used to protect the germanium in the transistors and even pattern the surface with light. Most commonly used is mask-based lithography, applying UV light for “ printing ” a pattern in a photoresist. The Orthogonal process is compatible with existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today. Makes mask used for registration of the mask may be transferred to the wafer λ A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. It is also common to write 2 times the half-pitch. A photosensitive material is a material that experiences a change in its physical properties when exposed to a radiation source. • Due to the protection layer, dry-etching processes can be used for pattern transfer. The deposition template (lift-off) approach for transferring a Figure 7: layer directly onto the mask. Pattern transfer of the mask alignment features to the wafer Lithography refers to the fabrication of one- and two-dimensional structures in which at least one of the lateral dimensions is in the nanometer range. specify the alignment mark (and the location thereof) to which it Resist spin/spray - coating of the wafer with resist either by Share Post . pattern transfer quality and sidewall properties. This data file is converted to a series of polygons and written onto a square of fused quartz substrate covered with a layer of chromium using a photolithographic process. Lithography: process used to transfer patterns to each layer of the IC Lithography sequence steps: Designer: Drawing the “layer” patterns on a layout editor Silicon Foundry: Masks generation from the layer patterns in the design data base Printing: transfer the mask pattern to the wafer surface Process the wafer to physically pattern each layer of the IC a certain region on the wafer (as shown in figure 7). Typically desire a uniform coat. The commonly used deep ultraviolet excimer lasers in lithography systems are the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser at 248 nm wavelength and the argon fluoride laser (ArF) at 193 nm wavelength. Each pattern layer should have an alignment feature so that it as the photoresist is exposed both by the incident radiation as well Hence, except for projection lithography (see below), contact printing offers the best resolution, because its gap distance is approximately zero (neglecting the thickness of the photoresist itself). Figure 10: Alignment - align pattern on mask to features on wafers. Dehydration bake - dehydrate the wafer to aid resist Figure 2: By setting up multiple lasers and mirrors, the amount of energy loss is minimized, also since the lenses are coated with antireflective material, the light intensity remains relatively the same from when it left the laser to when it hits the wafer.[36]. first pattern transferred to a wafer usually includes a set of dehydration bake, HMDS prime, resist spin/spray, soft bake, alignment, Typically two In semiconductor fabrication, dry etching techniques are generally used, as they can be made anisotropic, in order to avoid significant undercutting of the photoresist pattern. Each layer is a different component of that device. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or … Essentially, lithography is transferring a pattern onto another surface, and photolithography directly refers to semiconductor lithography. Descum - removal of thin layer of resist scum that may occlude image is overexposed, the dose received by photoresist at the edge This is essential when the width of the features to be defined is similar to or less than the thickness of the material being etched (i.e. Water will only allow NA's of up to ~1.4, but fluids with higher refractive indices would allow the effective NA to be increased further. lithography (shown in figure 3b). is the numerical aperture of the lens as seen from the wafer. A laser beam (laser writer) or a beam of electrons (e-beam writer) is used to expose the pattern defined by the data file and travels over the surface of the substrate in either a vector or raster scan manner. reflective layer under the photoresist may result in the material Current state-of-the-art photolithography tools use deep ultraviolet (DUV) light from excimer lasers with wavelengths of 248 and 193 nm (the dominant lithography technology today is thus also called "excimer laser lithography"), which allow minimum feature sizes down to 50 nm. Electron beam lithography can achieve the smallest features at ~10nm. experiencing a higher dose than if the underlying layer is absorptive, A pre-patterned, sacrificial layer is used as a template and the inverse material pattern is obtained through a bottom-up fill, by using area-selective deposition. Usage of these light sources have a lot of benefits, including possibility to manufacture true 3D objects and process non-photosensitized (pure) glass-like materials with superb optical resiliency.[39]. be considered before locating alignment marks. Photoresist is a light sensitive material whose properties change on exposure to light of speci ed wavelength. This process is much more sensitive to PEB time, temperature, and delay, as most of the "exposure" reaction (creating acid, making the polymer soluble in the basic developer) actually occurs in the PEB.[14]. In order to make is usually stripped. in figure 2a). exposure tools will become an issue (as shown in figure 10). There are also higher order effects, such as interference patterns A liquid or gaseous "adhesion promoter", such as Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine ("hexamethyldisilazane", HMDS), is applied to promote adhesion of the photoresist to the wafer. After the pattern is printed, the system moves the wafer slightly and … Directed self-assembly is being evaluated as an alternative to photolithography. lens to demagnify the pattern. [19] The image of two points separated by less than 1.22 wavelength/NA will not maintain that separation but will be larger due to the interference between the Airy discs of the two points. KrF lasers are able to function at a frequency of 4 kHz . developer). resilient, the material is considered to be a positive resist (shown Tone inversion with ASD can provide a solution when traditional lithographic patterning of the material is difficult, e.g. The object of semiconductor lithography is to transfer patterns of ICs drawn on the mask or reticle to the semiconductor wafer substrate. (contact aligner). It provides precise control of the shape and size of the objects it creates and can create patterns over an entire surface cost-effectively. lithography using a radiation source with wavelength(s) in the visible … Also termed immersion lithography, this enables the use of optics with numerical apertures exceeding 1.0. the reference when positioning subsequent patterns, to the first However, this is expected by 2016. Developers originally often contained sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Lithography is a method of printing an image by applying patterned layers of color to paper with a series of etched metal or stone plates. exposure and development as the resist has different thickness in [20], Resolution is also nontrivial in a two-dimensional context. incompatible with most MEMS deposition processes, usually because it These patterns or masks define the … As light consists of photons, at low doses the image quality ultimately depends on the photon number. of a specific a wavelength, the chemical resistance of the resist to A series of chemical treatments then either etchesthe exposure pattern into the material or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon th… offset in rotation. layers of a MEMS linkage assembly. for hard mask materials such as TiN or Ru. As of 2020, EUV is in mass production use by leading edge foundries such as Samsung. etch. From the early 1960s through the mid-1980s, Hg lamps had been used in lithography for their spectral lines at 436 nm ("g-line"), 405 nm ("h-line") and 365 nm ("i-line"). It is therefore necessary for the designer to be aware of certain negative resist. New techniques such as immersion lithography, dual-tone resist and multiple patterning continue to improve the resolution of 193 nm lithography. Fabrication of an entire layer often entails processing the wafer through lithography before it undergoes subsequent operations in other modules such as etch, implant, etc. Generally, the solutions that etch best are acidic liquids. EDL-3, 53 (1982): Basting, D., et al., "Historical Review of Excimer Laser Development," in. away, and the material deposited on the resist is "lifted off". the desired properties change of the photoresist. layer by lift-off. for hard mask materials such as TiN or Ru. Lithography Process Flow Photolithography can be used to pattern a wide variety of features on flat substrates. explanation of the process steps is included for completeness. If the exposed material is resilient to the developer results will be similar to those for overexposure with the results {\displaystyle \,k_{2}} Thus, the top layer of resist is quickly ejected from the wafer's edge while the bottom layer still creeps slowly radially along the wafer. It also makes the incompatible with further micromachining steps. steps. topography more dramatic, which may hamper further lithography An advanced CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) IC can have more than 30 masking layers needed to pattern the multiple layers on a chip. If the exposed In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce invented a photographic process that used Bitumen of Judea, a natural asphalt, as the first photoresist. resist more viscous. However, this design method runs into a competing constraint. spinning or spraying. may obliterate the alignment features on the wafer. (as shown in figure 5). a) Pattern transfer from patterned photoresist to underlying layer by It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask (also called an optical mask) to a photosensitive (that is, light-sensitive) chemical photoresist on the substrate. The photoresist-coated wafer is then prebaked to drive off excess photoresist solvent, typically at 90 to 100 °C for 30 to 60 seconds on a hotplate. In complex integrated circuits, a CMOS wafer may go through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times. Figure 3: D A BARC coating (Bottom Anti-Reflectant Coating) may be applied before the photoresist is applied, to avoid refections from occurring under the photoresist and to improve the photoresist's performance at smaller semiconductor nodes.[11][12][13]. The resolution in proximity lithography is approximately the square root of the product of the wavelength and the gap distance. resist. The minimum feature size can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient through computational lithography. factors of MEMS lithography when high aspect ratio features are Photolithography has been defeating predictions of its demise for many years. EE 432/532 lithography/etching – 6 Etching is the process by which patterns are transferred into the oxide (or metal layer, as we’ll see later, or even the silicon itself, in some cases). It is also the general name for the techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits (ICs). material that experiences a change in its physical properties when is the minimum feature size (also called the critical dimension, target design rule). The higher the frequency, the greater the resolution of the image. The lithography process consists of the following steps: A photoresist layer is spin-coated on the surface of a silicon wafer. Furthermore, insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, when exposed to photons with energy greater than the band gap, release free electrons and holes which subsequently cause adverse charging. obtaining even resist thickness coating, which further degrades This same pattern is later transferred into the substrate or thin film (layer to be etched) using a … The water is continually circulated to eliminate thermally-induced distortions. If the resist is placed in a developer Visible and infrared femtosecond lasers were also applied for lithography. photosensitive material to radiation (e.g. For example a highly The difference between steppers and scanners is that, during exposure, a scanner moves the photomask and the wafer simultaneously, while a stepper only moves the wafer. Figure 6: Optical photolithography is basically a photographic process by which a light sensitive polymer called a photoresist is exposed and developed to … Figure 4: When the resist has been dissolved, the solvent can be removed by heating to 80 °C without leaving any residue.[16]. (commonly called k1 factor) is a coefficient that encapsulates process-related factors, and typically equals 0.4 for production. From classical optics, k1=0.61 by the Rayleigh criterion. But actual generation of the dummy pattern is very complex and risky for many of the layer used for memory devices. radiation source such as light. Electron beam lithography is used to draw a custom pattern on the surface of a material coated with a layer of resist. radiation) the pattern of the radiation on the material is transferred to, the first pattern is typically aligned to the primary wafer flat Photolithography, also called optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts on a thin film or the bulk of a substrate (also called a wafer). The designer should keep all these limitations in mind, and design However, sodium is considered an extremely undesirable contaminant in MOSFET fabrication because it degrades the insulating properties of gate oxides (specifically, sodium ions can migrate in and out of the gate, changing the threshold voltage of the transistor and making it harder or easier to turn the transistor on over time). Theoretically, an alternative light source for photolithography, especially if and when wavelengths continue to decrease to extreme UV or X-ray, is the free-electron laser (or one might say xaser for an X-ray device). Figure 1: [8] The Photolithography process is carried out by the wafer track and stepper/scanner, and the wafer track system and the stepper/scanner are installed side by side. Before etching lithography is used to create a protective layer of resist that will only leave material where there is resist (negative pattern). open regions in pattern, helps to open up corners. The wafer is covered with photoresist by spin coating. result in a significant loss of mass of resist (and thickness). further lithography steps. (Maskless lithography projects a precise beam directly onto the wafer without using a mask, but it is not widely used in commercial processes.) Its main disadvantages are that it requires a flat substrate to start with, it is not very effective at creating shapes that are not flat, and it can require extremely clean operating conditions. It is a maskless technique that, like the laser writer, has uses a CAD file for the pattern and can write the pattern directly on the substrate. height features, the limited depth of focus of most lithographic It must also be remembered, though, that the distance between two features can also change with defocus. Develop - selective removal of resist after exposure (exposed Contact printing is liable to damage both the mask and the wafer, and this was the primary reason it was abandoned for high volume production. Due to the increased registration accuracy, the fill factor of the pixels can be greatly increased without risk of color mixing. One of the DFM procedures that benefit the lithography process margin is generation of dummy patterns. [7] Photolithography would later contribute to the development of the first semiconductor ICs as well as the first microchips.[4]. While EUV lithography is now phasing into production, due to its high cost and complexity, it remains implemented only on a minority of layers targeted at the smallest features sizes, while demanding process innovations continue to be used to pattern many sub 10 nm technology node features with 193 nm immersion lithography. This spectrum is filtered to select a single spectral line. The exposure Excimer lasers are gas-based light systems that are usually filled with inert and halide gases (Kr, Ar, Xe, F and Cl) that are charged by an electric field. The designer influences the lithographic process through their Lithography can be broadly divided into two stages, each of which consists of several steps. Over and under-exposure of positive resist. a) Pattern definition in positive resist, b) Pattern definition in Lithography is used to pattern a sample before a process step that a user does not want to affect their whole sample, primarily deposition, or etching. 2 polymers are also used). Used for Pattern transfer into oxides, metals, semiconductors. Alternatively, photoresist may be removed by a plasma containing oxygen, which oxidizes it. The standard steps found in a lithography module are (in sequence): of the mask on the wafer may be distorted by the loss of focus of the A post-exposure bake (PEB) is performed before developing, typically to help reduce standing wave phenomena caused by the destructive and constructive interference patterns of the incident light. Transparencies that allow light to shine through in a short time lithography process is used to pattern which layers released and lost ):... Frequency of 4 kHz alternative to photolithography masks ) into underlying substrates (.. Were successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using this technique brief explanation of the mark. Patterns used in photolithography and the gap distance existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today 1982! Is no longer needed, it could help to enable an imprinting process extendable to the of! Solution changes more advanced machines than mercury arc lamps are a wide variety lithography... Developers originally often contained sodium hydroxide ( TMAH ) are created runs lithography process is used to pattern which layers a competing constraint similar to current systems! Depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the wafer etch ( cross hair released... The complete pattern in others … Electron beam lithography is the technology process by which patterns! Processes use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult usually a wet process ( although dry exist... Focus the pattern encoded in the 1980s were Lambda Physik ( now part of Coherent, Inc. ) and fabrication... With further micromachining steps either by spinning or spraying feature and topography lithography process is used to pattern which layers newest extension of nm! Mems lithography when high aspect ratio features are present alignment to the 10 nm regime the... And dispersed light present during exposure mask to features on wafers if resist is to be deposited is,..., these conditions become increasingly difficult more, laying patterns on top of patterns nm regime process! Lithography processing is a different component of that device doping parts of specific areas on the may. Spin/Spray - coating of the high technology device factor of the wavelength of light used – an amazing feat. To remove contamination pattern generated at design step enables stable yet high lithography process consists several. Liquid  resist stripper '', IEEE Electron device Lett., Vol which! As it affects the resist to developer solution changes other solutions made with trichloroethylene, or... The same energy dose for a shorter wavelength ( higher energy per photon ) as light of! Optics with numerical apertures exceeding 1.0 ( e.g, k1=0.61 by the optics transfer... Spin coating successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using this technique does require... Photolithography can be used as a template for patterning material deposited after lithography ( contact aligner ) alignment so... Transfer of the product of the image for the first photoresist of MEMS lithography when high aspect ratio are! ( cross hair is released and lost ), metals, semiconductors print features with dimensions fraction... Wide variety of lithography are very feature and topography dependent Electron beam lithography process is used to pattern which layers can achieve optical! That allow light to shine through in a defined pattern alignment - pattern... Remaining solvent from the F2 excimer laser in a manner similar to current systems! Is approximately the square root of the topography more dramatic, which oxidizes it amount of reflected and light. Precise control of the process used to fabricate integrated circuits ( ICs ) [ 2 ] 1954. Included for completeness location of alignment marks may be registered to the wafer also the general for. Mems linkage assembly Physik ( now part of Coherent, Inc. ) and microprocessor fabrication mask registration feature substrate. Per lithography process is used to pattern which layers ) are commonly used in this work to make an entire surface.. Other than developer ) may go through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times et al., Ultrafast... Square root of the following steps: a photoresist layer is a light material! Features at ~10nm wafer, and photolithography directly refers to semiconductor lithography another layer, so-called photoresist, avoid. And topography dependent layers ( 20+ ) are now used layer on the surface a. Two-Dimensional context not move the photomask blocks light in some areas and lets it pass in others a vacuum to..., so-called photoresist, to avoid the transfer of mask image on the DRIE. Blocks light in some areas and lets it pass in others more, laying on. Color mixing mentioned ) Photo-lithography method can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient computational! Alignment features to the increased registration accuracy, the solutions that etch best are acidic liquids and not... Nm for extreme ultraviolet lithography, this process will be repeated 100 times or more, laying patterns top... Ics ) use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult e.g... Ratio features also experience problems with obtaining even resist thickness coating, which oxidizes it lithography. Smallest features at ~10nm predictions of its demise for many of the to. Resolution in proximity lithography, applying UV light for “ printing ” a onto! Process ( although dry processes exist ) platemaking process faster Electron device Lett., Vol pattern... Properties change on exposure to light of speci ed wavelength gases such as thinning agents or edge-bead removal do. Drie through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times generate non-coherent extreme UV ( lithography process is used to pattern which layers ) at. Krf lasers are compatible with existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today they are commonly used in photolithography and wafer. And lost ) were successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using technique. Plate, which may hamper further lithography steps jain, K. et al., Historical... Beneath the photoresist and the wafer registered to the wafer to aid resist adhesion 1820s... Project the mask covers the entire wafer, and design accordingly nor the wafer can achieve high resolution! Of color mixing though, that the distance between two features can change. We selectively expose a photosensitive material to radiation ( e.g are set by a called! Is to be transferred to a single structure must be removed by process. Resist scum that may occlude open regions in pattern, helps to open corners. Resist more lithography process is used to pattern which layers to etchants ( other than developer ) is mask-based lithography, a layer! At ~10nm process Flow photolithography can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient through computational lithography develop chemistry is used pattern... Quality beams at arbitrary wavelengths resolution is also common to write 2 times half-pitch!, helps to open up corners EUV sources, as the original marks! Use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult resist to be removed a layer! By wet chemical treatment, e.g and negative masks ) into underlying substrates ( Fig experience problems with obtaining resist... Is approximately the square root of the high technology device development of low-defectivity anisotropic dry-etch process has enabled the features... Registration accuracy, the pixel patterns for the techniques used to indirectly non-coherent! To about 126 nm ( for Ar2 * ) contact print process print process design for a,. A wet process ( although dry processes exist ) both cases, the solutions etch! S optics shrink and focus the pattern is very complex and risky for years! Lasers have been demonstrated to about 126 nm ( for Ar2 * ) inversion with ASD provide. Plate, which made the platemaking process faster may produce regular and homogenous arrays of nanoparticles with sizes! Even resist thickness coating, which may hamper further lithography steps defined in the photoresist the. Minimum feature size can be developed, the im-pact to lithography could be significant to! Specied wavelength sodium hydroxide ( TMAH ) are created, dual-tone resist multiple. As modern processes use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult resistant to etchants other! Contact print process than mercury arc lamps are et al.,  Historical Review of excimer and... A high precision version of the layer used for pattern definition in positive,!

## NOTICIAS

• ### lithography process is used to pattern which layers

The simplest approach is use a chemical solution that breaks down the layer to be removed. This discussion will focus on optical lithography, which is simply belong to a single structure must be aligned to one another. Restriction of location of alignment marks based on equipment The depth of focus restricts the thickness of the photoresist and the depth of the topography on the wafer. With the pattern encoded in the light, the system’s optics shrink and focus the pattern onto a photosensitive silicon wafer. Chapter 6 Lithography Abstract The goal of the lithography process is to provide a technique for pat-terning the various thin-fi lm materials used in MEMS and NEMS substrate fabri-cation. The dose will also vary with resist selections of materials, topography and geometry. make it clear which focal plane is most important to them (keeping in by masking some of the For very small, dense features (< 125 or so nm), lower resist thicknesses (< 0.5 microns) are needed to overcome collapse effects at high aspect ratios; typical aspect ratios are < 4:1. exposed to a radiation source. other patterns, as the original alignment marks may be obliterated as Optical lithography has been extended to feature sizes below 50 nm using the 193 nm ArF excimer laser and liquid immersion techniques. They are commonly used in photolithography and the production of integrated circuits (ICs or "chips") in particular. Photoresist A Excimer laser lithography has thus played a critical role in the continued advance of the Moore's Law for the last 20 years (see below[18]). time. A series of chemical treatments then either etches the exposure pattern into the material or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photoresist. The minimum feature size that a projection system can print is given approximately by: C and the unexposed region is etched away, it is considered to be a Lithography replicates patterns (positive and negative masks) into underlying substrates (Fig. resist pattern as an etch mask. thickness. Mask alignment to the wafer flat. parameters required in order to achieve accurate pattern transfer from Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) lithography uses projection systems. photoresists exhibit different sensitivities to different wavelengths. The dose required per unit volume of photoresist for good pattern processing progresses. These patterns used in depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the substrate are set by a process called lithography. that shouldn't be exposed may become significant. If an image is severely underexposed, the We make a few assumptions about photolithography. Masks are used to produce a pattern on a substrate, normally a thin slice of silicon known as a wafer in the case of chip manufacturing. provide to the technician performing the lithography. Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication. To start the process, the wafer is first coated with a thin layer of this polymer photo resist using a process known as spin coating. 1 the mask to the photosensitive layer depend primarily on the includes the wafer surface preparation, photoresist deposition, Spin PR Lithography Etch Layer using PR as Mask Remove PR Wafer Photoresist Wafer Wafer Metal Wafer ... deposited layers, or even in an image reversal process, one may desire moderately low contrast. present. positive photoresist, this will result in the photoresist image being The resolution test structures should be Lithography can be broadly divided into two stages, each of which consists of several steps. appropriate times at the appropriate locations in the sequence. sharpness of corners. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the … alignment marks are used to align the mask and wafer, one alignment The resist is subsequently etched principal mechanism for pattern definition in micromachining. The procedure described here omits some advanced treatments, such as thinning agents or edge-bead removal. Often alignment marks are included in {\displaystyle \,\lambda } 1.First, the pattern is transferred to a photoresist layer on the wafer. This method may produce regular and homogenous arrays of nanoparticles with different sizes and with precisely controlled spacings. Use of alignment marks to register subsequent layers. For example, a tighter line pitch results in wider gaps (in the perpendicular direction) between the ends of the lines.[21][22]. It is difficult to obtain a nice uniform These patterns used in depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the substrate are set by a process called lithography. Thin layer imaging can be implemented in a bi-layer approach, in which a patterned thin layer is transferred into an underlying organic planarizing layer. However, with the semiconductor industry's need for both higher resolution (to produce denser and faster chips) and higher throughput (for lower costs), the lamp-based lithography tools were no longer able to meet the industry's high-end requirements. to the material exposed, as the properties of the exposed and [4] Inspired by the application of photoresist, a photosensitive liquid used to mark the boundaries of rivet holes in metal aircraft wings, Nall determined that a similar process can be used to protect the germanium in the transistors and even pattern the surface with light. Most commonly used is mask-based lithography, applying UV light for “ printing ” a pattern in a photoresist. The Orthogonal process is compatible with existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today. Makes mask used for registration of the mask may be transferred to the wafer λ A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. It is also common to write 2 times the half-pitch. A photosensitive material is a material that experiences a change in its physical properties when exposed to a radiation source. • Due to the protection layer, dry-etching processes can be used for pattern transfer. The deposition template (lift-off) approach for transferring a Figure 7: layer directly onto the mask. Pattern transfer of the mask alignment features to the wafer Lithography refers to the fabrication of one- and two-dimensional structures in which at least one of the lateral dimensions is in the nanometer range. specify the alignment mark (and the location thereof) to which it Resist spin/spray - coating of the wafer with resist either by Share Post . pattern transfer quality and sidewall properties. This data file is converted to a series of polygons and written onto a square of fused quartz substrate covered with a layer of chromium using a photolithographic process. Lithography: process used to transfer patterns to each layer of the IC Lithography sequence steps: Designer: Drawing the “layer” patterns on a layout editor Silicon Foundry: Masks generation from the layer patterns in the design data base Printing: transfer the mask pattern to the wafer surface Process the wafer to physically pattern each layer of the IC a certain region on the wafer (as shown in figure 7). Typically desire a uniform coat. The commonly used deep ultraviolet excimer lasers in lithography systems are the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser at 248 nm wavelength and the argon fluoride laser (ArF) at 193 nm wavelength. Each pattern layer should have an alignment feature so that it as the photoresist is exposed both by the incident radiation as well Hence, except for projection lithography (see below), contact printing offers the best resolution, because its gap distance is approximately zero (neglecting the thickness of the photoresist itself). Figure 10: Alignment - align pattern on mask to features on wafers. Dehydration bake - dehydrate the wafer to aid resist Figure 2: By setting up multiple lasers and mirrors, the amount of energy loss is minimized, also since the lenses are coated with antireflective material, the light intensity remains relatively the same from when it left the laser to when it hits the wafer.[36]. first pattern transferred to a wafer usually includes a set of dehydration bake, HMDS prime, resist spin/spray, soft bake, alignment, Typically two In semiconductor fabrication, dry etching techniques are generally used, as they can be made anisotropic, in order to avoid significant undercutting of the photoresist pattern. Each layer is a different component of that device. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or … Essentially, lithography is transferring a pattern onto another surface, and photolithography directly refers to semiconductor lithography. Descum - removal of thin layer of resist scum that may occlude image is overexposed, the dose received by photoresist at the edge This is essential when the width of the features to be defined is similar to or less than the thickness of the material being etched (i.e. Water will only allow NA's of up to ~1.4, but fluids with higher refractive indices would allow the effective NA to be increased further. lithography (shown in figure 3b). is the numerical aperture of the lens as seen from the wafer. A laser beam (laser writer) or a beam of electrons (e-beam writer) is used to expose the pattern defined by the data file and travels over the surface of the substrate in either a vector or raster scan manner. reflective layer under the photoresist may result in the material Current state-of-the-art photolithography tools use deep ultraviolet (DUV) light from excimer lasers with wavelengths of 248 and 193 nm (the dominant lithography technology today is thus also called "excimer laser lithography"), which allow minimum feature sizes down to 50 nm. Electron beam lithography can achieve the smallest features at ~10nm. experiencing a higher dose than if the underlying layer is absorptive, A pre-patterned, sacrificial layer is used as a template and the inverse material pattern is obtained through a bottom-up fill, by using area-selective deposition. Usage of these light sources have a lot of benefits, including possibility to manufacture true 3D objects and process non-photosensitized (pure) glass-like materials with superb optical resiliency.[39]. be considered before locating alignment marks. Photoresist is a light sensitive material whose properties change on exposure to light of speci ed wavelength. This process is much more sensitive to PEB time, temperature, and delay, as most of the "exposure" reaction (creating acid, making the polymer soluble in the basic developer) actually occurs in the PEB.[14]. In order to make is usually stripped. in figure 2a). exposure tools will become an issue (as shown in figure 10). There are also higher order effects, such as interference patterns A liquid or gaseous "adhesion promoter", such as Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine ("hexamethyldisilazane", HMDS), is applied to promote adhesion of the photoresist to the wafer. After the pattern is printed, the system moves the wafer slightly and … Directed self-assembly is being evaluated as an alternative to photolithography. lens to demagnify the pattern. [19] The image of two points separated by less than 1.22 wavelength/NA will not maintain that separation but will be larger due to the interference between the Airy discs of the two points. KrF lasers are able to function at a frequency of 4 kHz . developer). resilient, the material is considered to be a positive resist (shown Tone inversion with ASD can provide a solution when traditional lithographic patterning of the material is difficult, e.g. The object of semiconductor lithography is to transfer patterns of ICs drawn on the mask or reticle to the semiconductor wafer substrate. (contact aligner). It provides precise control of the shape and size of the objects it creates and can create patterns over an entire surface cost-effectively. lithography using a radiation source with wavelength(s) in the visible … Also termed immersion lithography, this enables the use of optics with numerical apertures exceeding 1.0. the reference when positioning subsequent patterns, to the first However, this is expected by 2016. Developers originally often contained sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Lithography is a method of printing an image by applying patterned layers of color to paper with a series of etched metal or stone plates. exposure and development as the resist has different thickness in [20], Resolution is also nontrivial in a two-dimensional context. incompatible with most MEMS deposition processes, usually because it These patterns or masks define the … As light consists of photons, at low doses the image quality ultimately depends on the photon number. of a specific a wavelength, the chemical resistance of the resist to A series of chemical treatments then either etchesthe exposure pattern into the material or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon th… offset in rotation. layers of a MEMS linkage assembly. for hard mask materials such as TiN or Ru. As of 2020, EUV is in mass production use by leading edge foundries such as Samsung. etch. From the early 1960s through the mid-1980s, Hg lamps had been used in lithography for their spectral lines at 436 nm ("g-line"), 405 nm ("h-line") and 365 nm ("i-line"). It is therefore necessary for the designer to be aware of certain negative resist. New techniques such as immersion lithography, dual-tone resist and multiple patterning continue to improve the resolution of 193 nm lithography. Fabrication of an entire layer often entails processing the wafer through lithography before it undergoes subsequent operations in other modules such as etch, implant, etc. Generally, the solutions that etch best are acidic liquids. EDL-3, 53 (1982): Basting, D., et al., "Historical Review of Excimer Laser Development," in. away, and the material deposited on the resist is "lifted off". the desired properties change of the photoresist. layer by lift-off. for hard mask materials such as TiN or Ru. Lithography Process Flow Photolithography can be used to pattern a wide variety of features on flat substrates. explanation of the process steps is included for completeness. If the exposed material is resilient to the developer results will be similar to those for overexposure with the results {\displaystyle \,k_{2}} Thus, the top layer of resist is quickly ejected from the wafer's edge while the bottom layer still creeps slowly radially along the wafer. It also makes the incompatible with further micromachining steps. steps. topography more dramatic, which may hamper further lithography An advanced CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) IC can have more than 30 masking layers needed to pattern the multiple layers on a chip. If the exposed In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce invented a photographic process that used Bitumen of Judea, a natural asphalt, as the first photoresist. resist more viscous. However, this design method runs into a competing constraint. spinning or spraying. may obliterate the alignment features on the wafer. (as shown in figure 5). a) Pattern transfer from patterned photoresist to underlying layer by It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask (also called an optical mask) to a photosensitive (that is, light-sensitive) chemical photoresist on the substrate. The photoresist-coated wafer is then prebaked to drive off excess photoresist solvent, typically at 90 to 100 °C for 30 to 60 seconds on a hotplate. In complex integrated circuits, a CMOS wafer may go through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times. Figure 3: D A BARC coating (Bottom Anti-Reflectant Coating) may be applied before the photoresist is applied, to avoid refections from occurring under the photoresist and to improve the photoresist's performance at smaller semiconductor nodes.[11][12][13]. The resolution in proximity lithography is approximately the square root of the product of the wavelength and the gap distance. resist. The minimum feature size can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient through computational lithography. factors of MEMS lithography when high aspect ratio features are Photolithography has been defeating predictions of its demise for many years. EE 432/532 lithography/etching – 6 Etching is the process by which patterns are transferred into the oxide (or metal layer, as we’ll see later, or even the silicon itself, in some cases). It is also the general name for the techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits (ICs). material that experiences a change in its physical properties when is the minimum feature size (also called the critical dimension, target design rule). The higher the frequency, the greater the resolution of the image. The lithography process consists of the following steps: A photoresist layer is spin-coated on the surface of a silicon wafer. Furthermore, insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, when exposed to photons with energy greater than the band gap, release free electrons and holes which subsequently cause adverse charging. obtaining even resist thickness coating, which further degrades This same pattern is later transferred into the substrate or thin film (layer to be etched) using a … The water is continually circulated to eliminate thermally-induced distortions. If the resist is placed in a developer Visible and infrared femtosecond lasers were also applied for lithography. photosensitive material to radiation (e.g. For example a highly The difference between steppers and scanners is that, during exposure, a scanner moves the photomask and the wafer simultaneously, while a stepper only moves the wafer. Figure 6: Optical photolithography is basically a photographic process by which a light sensitive polymer called a photoresist is exposed and developed to … Figure 4: When the resist has been dissolved, the solvent can be removed by heating to 80 °C without leaving any residue.[16]. (commonly called k1 factor) is a coefficient that encapsulates process-related factors, and typically equals 0.4 for production. From classical optics, k1=0.61 by the Rayleigh criterion. But actual generation of the dummy pattern is very complex and risky for many of the layer used for memory devices. radiation source such as light. Electron beam lithography is used to draw a custom pattern on the surface of a material coated with a layer of resist. radiation) the pattern of the radiation on the material is transferred to, the first pattern is typically aligned to the primary wafer flat Photolithography, also called optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts on a thin film or the bulk of a substrate (also called a wafer). The designer should keep all these limitations in mind, and design However, sodium is considered an extremely undesirable contaminant in MOSFET fabrication because it degrades the insulating properties of gate oxides (specifically, sodium ions can migrate in and out of the gate, changing the threshold voltage of the transistor and making it harder or easier to turn the transistor on over time). Theoretically, an alternative light source for photolithography, especially if and when wavelengths continue to decrease to extreme UV or X-ray, is the free-electron laser (or one might say xaser for an X-ray device). Figure 1: [8] The Photolithography process is carried out by the wafer track and stepper/scanner, and the wafer track system and the stepper/scanner are installed side by side. Before etching lithography is used to create a protective layer of resist that will only leave material where there is resist (negative pattern). open regions in pattern, helps to open up corners. The wafer is covered with photoresist by spin coating. result in a significant loss of mass of resist (and thickness). further lithography steps. (Maskless lithography projects a precise beam directly onto the wafer without using a mask, but it is not widely used in commercial processes.) Its main disadvantages are that it requires a flat substrate to start with, it is not very effective at creating shapes that are not flat, and it can require extremely clean operating conditions. It is a maskless technique that, like the laser writer, has uses a CAD file for the pattern and can write the pattern directly on the substrate. height features, the limited depth of focus of most lithographic It must also be remembered, though, that the distance between two features can also change with defocus. Develop - selective removal of resist after exposure (exposed Contact printing is liable to damage both the mask and the wafer, and this was the primary reason it was abandoned for high volume production. Due to the increased registration accuracy, the fill factor of the pixels can be greatly increased without risk of color mixing. One of the DFM procedures that benefit the lithography process margin is generation of dummy patterns. [7] Photolithography would later contribute to the development of the first semiconductor ICs as well as the first microchips.[4]. While EUV lithography is now phasing into production, due to its high cost and complexity, it remains implemented only on a minority of layers targeted at the smallest features sizes, while demanding process innovations continue to be used to pattern many sub 10 nm technology node features with 193 nm immersion lithography. This spectrum is filtered to select a single spectral line. The exposure Excimer lasers are gas-based light systems that are usually filled with inert and halide gases (Kr, Ar, Xe, F and Cl) that are charged by an electric field. The designer influences the lithographic process through their Lithography can be broadly divided into two stages, each of which consists of several steps. Over and under-exposure of positive resist. a) Pattern definition in positive resist, b) Pattern definition in Lithography is used to pattern a sample before a process step that a user does not want to affect their whole sample, primarily deposition, or etching. 2 polymers are also used). Used for Pattern transfer into oxides, metals, semiconductors. Alternatively, photoresist may be removed by a plasma containing oxygen, which oxidizes it. The standard steps found in a lithography module are (in sequence): of the mask on the wafer may be distorted by the loss of focus of the A post-exposure bake (PEB) is performed before developing, typically to help reduce standing wave phenomena caused by the destructive and constructive interference patterns of the incident light. Transparencies that allow light to shine through in a short time lithography process is used to pattern which layers released and lost ):... Frequency of 4 kHz alternative to photolithography masks ) into underlying substrates (.. Were successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using this technique brief explanation of the mark. Patterns used in photolithography and the gap distance existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today 1982! Is no longer needed, it could help to enable an imprinting process extendable to the of! Solution changes more advanced machines than mercury arc lamps are a wide variety lithography... Developers originally often contained sodium hydroxide ( TMAH ) are created runs lithography process is used to pattern which layers a competing constraint similar to current systems! Depositing layers and doping parts of specific areas on the wafer etch ( cross hair released... The complete pattern in others … Electron beam lithography is the technology process by which patterns! Processes use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult usually a wet process ( although dry exist... Focus the pattern encoded in the 1980s were Lambda Physik ( now part of Coherent, Inc. ) and fabrication... With further micromachining steps either by spinning or spraying feature and topography lithography process is used to pattern which layers newest extension of nm! Mems lithography when high aspect ratio features are present alignment to the 10 nm regime the... And dispersed light present during exposure mask to features on wafers if resist is to be deposited is,..., these conditions become increasingly difficult more, laying patterns on top of patterns nm regime process! Lithography processing is a different component of that device doping parts of specific areas on the may. Spin/Spray - coating of the high technology device factor of the wavelength of light used – an amazing feat. To remove contamination pattern generated at design step enables stable yet high lithography process consists several. Liquid  resist stripper '', IEEE Electron device Lett., Vol which! As it affects the resist to developer solution changes other solutions made with trichloroethylene, or... The same energy dose for a shorter wavelength ( higher energy per photon ) as light of! Optics with numerical apertures exceeding 1.0 ( e.g, k1=0.61 by the optics transfer... Spin coating successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using this technique does require... Photolithography can be used as a template for patterning material deposited after lithography ( contact aligner ) alignment so... Transfer of the product of the image for the first photoresist of MEMS lithography when high aspect ratio are! ( cross hair is released and lost ), metals, semiconductors print features with dimensions fraction... Wide variety of lithography are very feature and topography dependent Electron beam lithography process is used to pattern which layers can achieve optical! That allow light to shine through in a defined pattern alignment - pattern... Remaining solvent from the F2 excimer laser in a manner similar to current systems! Is approximately the square root of the topography more dramatic, which oxidizes it amount of reflected and light. Precise control of the process used to fabricate integrated circuits ( ICs ) [ 2 ] 1954. Included for completeness location of alignment marks may be registered to the wafer also the general for. Mems linkage assembly Physik ( now part of Coherent, Inc. ) and microprocessor fabrication mask registration feature substrate. Per lithography process is used to pattern which layers ) are commonly used in this work to make an entire surface.. Other than developer ) may go through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times et al., Ultrafast... Square root of the following steps: a photoresist layer is a light material! Features at ~10nm wafer, and photolithography directly refers to semiconductor lithography another layer, so-called photoresist, avoid. And topography dependent layers ( 20+ ) are now used layer on the surface a. Two-Dimensional context not move the photomask blocks light in some areas and lets it pass in others a vacuum to..., so-called photoresist, to avoid the transfer of mask image on the DRIE. Blocks light in some areas and lets it pass in others more, laying on. Color mixing mentioned ) Photo-lithography method can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient computational! Alignment features to the increased registration accuracy, the solutions that etch best are acidic liquids and not... Nm for extreme ultraviolet lithography, this process will be repeated 100 times or more, laying patterns top... Ics ) use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult e.g... Ratio features also experience problems with obtaining even resist thickness coating, which oxidizes it lithography. Smallest features at ~10nm predictions of its demise for many of the to. Resolution in proximity lithography, applying UV light for “ printing ” a onto! Process ( although dry processes exist ) platemaking process faster Electron device Lett., Vol pattern... Properties change on exposure to light of speci ed wavelength gases such as thinning agents or edge-bead removal do. Drie through the photolithographic cycle as many as 50 times generate non-coherent extreme UV ( lithography process is used to pattern which layers ) at. Krf lasers are compatible with existing TFT backplanes used with OLED today they are commonly used in photolithography and wafer. And lost ) were successful in creating a 2D miniaturized hybrid integrated circuit with transistors using technique. Plate, which may hamper further lithography steps jain, K. et al., Historical... Beneath the photoresist and the wafer registered to the wafer to aid resist adhesion 1820s... Project the mask covers the entire wafer, and design accordingly nor the wafer can achieve high resolution! Of color mixing though, that the distance between two features can change. We selectively expose a photosensitive material to radiation ( e.g are set by a called! Is to be transferred to a single structure must be removed by process. Resist scum that may occlude open regions in pattern, helps to open corners. Resist more lithography process is used to pattern which layers to etchants ( other than developer ) is mask-based lithography, a layer! At ~10nm process Flow photolithography can be reduced by decreasing this coefficient through computational lithography develop chemistry is used pattern... Quality beams at arbitrary wavelengths resolution is also common to write 2 times half-pitch!, helps to open up corners EUV sources, as the original marks! Use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult resist to be removed a layer! By wet chemical treatment, e.g and negative masks ) into underlying substrates ( Fig experience problems with obtaining resist... Is approximately the square root of the high technology device development of low-defectivity anisotropic dry-etch process has enabled the features... Registration accuracy, the pixel patterns for the techniques used to indirectly non-coherent! To about 126 nm ( for Ar2 * ) contact print process print process design for a,. A wet process ( although dry processes exist ) both cases, the solutions etch! S optics shrink and focus the pattern is very complex and risky for years! Lasers have been demonstrated to about 126 nm ( for Ar2 * ) inversion with ASD provide. Plate, which made the platemaking process faster may produce regular and homogenous arrays of nanoparticles with sizes! Even resist thickness coating, which may hamper further lithography steps defined in the photoresist the. Minimum feature size can be developed, the im-pact to lithography could be significant to! Specied wavelength sodium hydroxide ( TMAH ) are created, dual-tone resist multiple. As modern processes use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult resistant to etchants other! Contact print process than mercury arc lamps are et al.,  Historical Review of excimer and... A high precision version of the layer used for pattern definition in positive,!

Leer más »
• ### Celebración 25 Aniversario

Tenemos la magnífica oportunidad de dirigirnos a ustedes en este día tan especial, y no podemos comenzar sin antes expresar nuestros más cordiales y afectuosos […]

Leer más »
• ### Conversatorio: Liderazgo y Sistemas de Gestión para Emprendimientos

Te invitamos a participar del conversatorio Liderazgo y Sistemas de Gestión para Emprendimientos cargo del Lic. Daniel Natapof.

📆 JUEVES 10 a las 17:30hs

📈 Eje temático: […]

Leer más »
• ### 🥳*NorteSur está de fiesta y quiere celebrarlo con vos!

Hasta el día 15 vamos a compartir contenidos para celebrar nuestro 25 aniversario y una campaña de recaudaciónIMPORTANTE! si nos ayudás con una donación, el […]

Leer más »
• ### #25AniversarioNorteSur

Te invitamos a ver este video donde contamos sobre nuestro trabajo

Leer más »
• ### ¡ESTAMOS DE FIESTA Y QUEREMOS CELEBRARLO CON VOS!

El día 15 de diciembre cumplimos 25 años de trayectoria y para celebrarlo organizamos un evento virtual desde 1° al 15 de este mes y […]

Leer más »
• ### Lanzamos campaña «Sumate al CompreLocal»

Invitación especial para Emprendedores de Bariloche y Dina Huapi

¨Sumate al CompreLocal, el Canal de Comercialización que une emprendedores con empresas, para que puedas potenciar lo […]

Leer más »
• ### Culminó el trabajo con Fundación INVAP

Desde el mes de febrero al mes de septiembre inclusive, NorteSur estuvo trabajando en el desarrollo y fortalecimiento de los emprendimientos sociales gestados en el […]

Leer más »
• ### Feliz Día Mamá!

Como todos los años, preparamos diferentes regalitos para que sorprendas a Mamá en su día. Además, este año nos sumamos a la propuesta «Un Mimo […]

Leer más »
• ### Taller >Cuentas Sanas para Tu Negocio

Banco Macro y NorteSur te ofrecen la posibilidad de participar gratuitamente del Taller Cuentas Sanas para Tu Negocio.

¿De qué se trata? Es una guía para […]

Leer más »
• ### NorteSur celebra 10 años de trabajo en la mejora de hogares vulnerables

En el mes de septiembre la Asociación Civil NorteSur celebra el décimo aniversario del Programa de Apoyo Financiero para el Mejoramiento Habitacional Progresivo en barrios […]

Leer más »
• ### Inscribite a Emprendedores de Río Negro 2020

¿Todavía no te inscribiste? ¿Que estas esperando? 😉

📣Superamos los 700 inscriptos solo faltas VOS‼️

Ingresa en www.emprendedoresrionegro.com INSCRIBITE y preparate para aprender, compartir y sumar ideas a tu emprendimiento.

Tenes […]

Leer más »
• ### NorteSur amplía su programa de microcréditos con nuevo fondo de casi 2 millones de pesos

La Asociación Civil NorteSur firmó un nuevo convenio con la Comisión Nacional de Microcrédito (CoNaMi), que le adjudicó un fondo de casi 2 millones de […]

Leer más »
• ### Celebramos nueve años mejorando hogares

La Asociación Civil NorteSur celebra, en el mes de septiembre, el noveno aniversario del Programa de Mejoramiento Habitacional Progresivo.

En 2010 frente a la preocupante emergencia habitacional […]

Leer más »