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county of edessa

The Near East in 1135 CEby MapMaster (CC BY-SA). Joscelin of Courtenay or Joscelin I (died 1131), Prince of Galilee and Lord of Turbessel (1115-1131) and Count of Edessa (1119-1131), ruled over the County of Edessa during its zenith, from 1118 to 1131. Conquered by the Muslim Arabs c. 638 CE, it would be incorporated into the Byzantine Empire from 944 CE. Cartwright, M. (2018, September 25). Map County of Edessa 1098-1131-es.svg 779 × 575; 261 KB. … Edessa. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. In Late Antiquity, Edessa was an important city on the Roman–Persian frontier with the Sasanian Empire. All the Christian male citizens of the city were slaughtered, and the women and children were sold into slavery, just as their western fellows had been two years before. Edessa was the first Crusader state to be captured, and also the first to be lost. Edessa, then known as Adme, was an ancient settlement, chosen for its advantageous position on a fertile plain with abundant water from a nearby branch of the Euphrates River while also being protected by a ring of hills to the south. Edessa was an ancient city (polis) in Upper Mesopotamia, founded during the Hellenistic period by King Seleucus I Nicator (r. 305–281 BC), founder of the Seleucid Empire. Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) was a notable guest, visiting Edessa on his tour of the region when he was hosted by King Abgar VII (r. 109-116 CE). [31], Under the Ottomans in 1518, the population of Edessa was estimated at a mere 5,500; likely due to the Ottoman–Persian Wars. It was also the most northerly, the weakest, and the least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Ok, Tripoli was small, but Edessa was large. Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessa. [21], He was succeeded by Aggai, then by Saint Mari, who was ordained about 200 by Serapion of Antioch. According to some Jewish and Muslim traditions, it is Ur of the Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham. It seems that the Mandylion story was based on the actual conversion to Christianity of a later king of the same name, Abgar IX (r. 179-216 CE). ), many others in the Revue de l'Orient chrétien (VI, 195), some in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft (1899), 261 sqq. WhenNisibis (Nusaybin) was ceded to the Persians along with the five Transtigritine provinces in 363, Ephrem the Syrian left his native town for Edessa, where he founded the celebrated School of Edessa. However, there is no doubt that even before AD 190 Christianity had spread vigorously within Edessa and its surroundings and that shortly after the royal house joined the church. [10] Traces of Hellenistic culture were soon overwhelmed in Edessa, which employed Syriac legends on coinage, with the exception of the client king Abgar IX (179–214), and there is a corresponding lack of Greek public inscriptions. After a four-week struggle, the city was captured by Zangi on 24 December 1144 CE, which Muslims described as "the victory of victories" (Asbridge, 226). No one can successfully resist you in war, since God is with you. Baldwin of Boulogne, the first Count of Edessa, became King of Jerusalem, and the following counts of Edessa were his cousins. In 1146, the city was briefly recaptured by the crusaders and lost after a few days. [23] In 232 the relics of the apostle Thomas were brought from Mylapore, India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written. [12] According to this text, Edessenes were early adopters of Christianity; the inhabitants of the neighbouring city of Carrhae (Harran), by contrast, were pagans. Although the kingdom was, in reality, a vassal state of Parthia, it proved a useful buffer zone between that empire and the emerging Roman Empire. Further, the image on the miracle icon, probably the first relic its kind, was copied in many wall-paintings and domes in churches around Christendom as it became the standard representation known as the Pantokrator (All-Ruler) with Christ full frontal holding a Gospel book in his left hand and performing a blessing with his right. Edessa was also held by the Mamluk Sultanate, and the Aq Qoyunlu. The offices they held pertained to the management of the count's household and the military defence of the county. [12] According to the Chronicle of Edessa, in 394 the relics of Saint Thomas were translated into the great Church of St Thomas and in 442 they were encased in a silver casket. Books Once again the city was sacked to celebrate Nur ad-Din's new power. Of its Jacobite bishops, twenty-nine are mentioned by Le Quien (II, 1429 sqq. [13] Miaphysitism prospered at Edessa after the Arab conquest. Eusebius of Caesarea even claimed in his Church History that "the whole city" was "devoted to the name of Christ" in the early 4th century; in fact the city had at least some pagan inhabitants into the early 5th century, as well as Jewish ones. Related Content Baldwin had agreed to lend his support on the condition that he become Thoros’ heir, but, on arrival, the Frenchman either joined or turned a blind eye to a dissident mob which lynched Thoros. Meanwhile, the Muslim army, on hearing the news of the change in power and the fall of Antioch a day earlier after a long siege, withdrew. The victory entrenched Zengi as leader of the Muslims in the Holy Land, a mantle that would be taken up by his son Nur ad-Din and then by Saladin. The city was ruled shortly thereafter by Marwanids. Baldwin and his army of around 80 western knights (plus infantry) had actually been invited by Thoros, the Armenian ruler of Edessa, to come to his aid against the imminent arrival of a Muslim army from Mosul in Iraq. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Following its capture and sack by Trajan, the Romans even occupied Edessa from 116 to 118, although its sympathies towards the Parthians led to Lucius Verus pillaging the city later in the 2nd century. Stronghold Crusader HD - Crusader States Chapter 2: County of Edessa. In the majority of cases these crests were actually drawn up by the government before being assigned to the counties themselves. [3] From 212 to 214 the kingdom was a Roman province. It later became capital of the Kingdom of Osroene, and continued as capital of the Roman province of Osroene. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital of the kingdom of Osroene, then a Roman provincial city, Edessa found itself perennially caught between empires, especially between Rome and Parthia. The city was taken in 609 by the Sasanian Empire, and retaken by Heraclius, but lost to the Muslim army under the Rashidun Caliphate during the Muslim conquest of the Levant in 638. The precise date of the introduction of Christianity into Edessa is not known. Between 638 and 641 CE, it was a different story and Edessa fell under Arab control; it would not return to Byzantine rule until the Byzantine general John Kourkouas took it back in 944 CE. It was named Justinopolis in the early 6th century. In 1144 the city had an Armenian population of 47,000. Nur ad-Din (r. 1146-1174 CE), Zangi’s successor after his death in September 1146 CE, defeated the Latin leader Joscelin II’s attempt to retake Edessa. In the 12th century CE, Edessa, with its wealth and rich history, attracted the attention of Imad ad-Din Zangi (r. 1127-1146 CE), the Muslim independent ruler of Mosul and Aleppo in Syria. Edessa was attacked several times over the centuries especially by the neighbouring Sasanids, notably in 503 CE by Kavad, king of Persia (r. 488-531 CE), although his siege was not successful (the Mandylion doing its job). Being the youngest son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida of Lorraine, he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. It is not clear whether Baldwin issued any coins during his reign as count of Edessa, which lasted until 1100 when he became the king of Jerusalem. This area had previously been controlled by Christian Armenians, and although Baldwin had usurped political rule, there was, through many intermarriages, a mix of Frankish and Armenian nobility, making the County of Edessa the most integrated of the four Crusader-created states the region. During the Late Antiquity, it became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of the Catechetical School of Edessa. The population of Edessa, like Osroene in general at this time, was a mix of Greeks, Parthians, and Semitic Arameans. Siege of Edessa, (28 November–24 December 1144). [5][6][7][8] It was later renamed Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης; Latin: Antiochia ad Callirhoem) in the 2nd century BC (found on Edessan coins struck by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, r. 175–164 BC). The County, although covering the largest territory of any Crusader State, was a vassal state to the mor… After the Crusader army’s defeat at Dorylaion in Asia Minor on 25 October 1147 CE and the failed siege of Damascus in July 1148 CE, the Second Crusade was abandoned and Edessa left to its fate. Joscelin II fled to Turbessel, where he held the remnants of the county west of the Euphrates. Muslim tradition tells of a similar account, known as the second pledge at al-Aqabah. Following are some of the famous individuals connected with Edessa: Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°09′N 38°48′E / 37.150°N 38.800°E / 37.150; 38.800, This article is about the city in Mesopotamia. In this series I'll be playing through the entire Stronghold Crusader HD Crusader States campaign w/ … "Edessa was the first crusader state, founded in 1098. Before the fall, the Christians of Edessa had appealed for help to the west, an appeal later given some emotional propaganda by such Christian writers as Michael the Syrian (d. 1199 CE): Edessa remained a desert: a moving sight covered with a black garment, drunk with blood, infested by the very corpses of its sons and daughters! Edessa became one of the frontier cities of the province of Osroene and lay close to the border of the Sasanian Empire. The city is now known as 'Urfa, or Şanlıurfa, a city in Turkey. [1][2], The Roman Republic began exercizing political influence over the Kingdom of Osroene and its capital Edessa from 69 BC. The Roman soldier and Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the city's formidable fortifications and how in 359 it successfully resisted the attack of Shapur II (r. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Seleucus I (358-281 BCE), one of Alexander the Great’s Macedonian commanders who established the Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE) in Asia, re-founded the city as a military settlement in 304 BCE. Seleucus gave it the new name of Edessa, after the original name of the ancient capital of Macedonia. "Edessa." Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. County of Edessa 1135-es.svg 766 × 587; 187 KB. Edessa was subsequently controlled by the Safavid dynasty, and from 1517 to 1918 the Ottoman Empire. These can be divided into two series: an ear… The fall of the crusader city of Edessa to the Muslims was the spark that ignited the Second Crusade. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital of the kingdom of Osroene, then a Roman provincial city, Edessa found itself perennially caught between empires, especially between Rome and Parthia. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Modern names of the city are likely derived from Urhay or Orhay (Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: ʾŪrhāy / ʾŌrhāy), the site's Aramaic name before the re-foundation of the settlement by Seleucus I Nicator. Joscelin was captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered … Edessa (Ἔδεσσα) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia founded in the fourth century BCE and named after the ancient capital of Macedonia. Crusader States (1135)-ka.png 955 × 1,315; 269 KB. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. According to the Chronicle of Edessa, the early 5th-century theologian and bishop Rabbula built a church dedicated to Saint Stephen in a building that had been a synagogue.[3]. [3], Edessa was rebuilt by Justin I (r. 518–527), and renamed Justinopolis after him. [3], A more elaborate version of the Abgar Legend is recorded in the early 5th-century Syriac Doctrine of Addai, purportedly based on the state archives of Edessa, and including both a pseudepigraphal letter from Abgar V to Tiberius (r. 14–37) and the emperor's supposed reply. Edessa became the most important bishopric in Syria. [12] This text is the earliest to allege that a painting (or icon) of Jesus was enclosed with the reply to Abgar and that the city of Edessa was prophesied never to fall. Tripoli at this time was governed by the ʿAmmārids, a dynasty of Shīʿa Muslim religious judges or qāḍīs. Cartwright, Mark. [6][7] The ridge in turn was an extension of Mount Masius, part of the Taurus Mountains of southern Asia Minor. The state of Edessa was ruled by Crusaders from 1098, when Baldwin I (of Boulogne) established the County of Edessa as its first Count. The image would also inspire the design of coins of the Byzantine Empire. [9][6][7], After Antiochus IV's reign, the name of the city reverted to Edessa, in Greek,[6] and also appears in Armenian as Urha or Ourha (Ուռհա), in Aramaic (Syriac) as Urhay or Orhay (Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: ʾŪrhāy / ʾŌrhāy), in Arabic as ar-Ruhā (الرُّهَا), in the Kurdish languages as Riha, Latinized as Rohais, and finally adopted into Turkish as Urfa or Şanlıurfa ("Glorious Urfa"), its present name. According to the late-6th-century Frankish hagiographer and bishop Gregory of Tours, the relics had themselves been brought from India, while in Edessa an annual fair (and alleviation of customs duties) was held at the church in July in the saint's honour (the feast of St Thomas was observed on 3 July) during which, Gregory alleged, water would appear in shallow wells and flies disappeared. A Shīʿa traveller from Persia named Nāṣir Khusraw visited Tripoli … The Turkic Zengid dynasty's lands were eventually absorbed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 after the 1514 Battle of Chaldiran. Web. After Yarankash, a Frankish slave, assassinated Zengi in September 1146, Joscelin II recaptured Edessa in Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 25 September 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. [3] She saw a longer version of the Letters than she was previously familiar with, and was assured that the holy words had repelled a Persian assault on the city. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, differing from the other Crusader states in that it was landlocked and not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch.Half of the county, including its capital, was located east of the Euphrates, far to the east of the others, rendering it particularly vulnerable. By 1566, though, the population had risen to an estimated 14,000 citizens. Its vulnerable, landlocked, eastern location, between the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, led to its early fall in 1144, to the Oghuz Turks, sparking the beginning of the Second Crusade. In response to the fall of Edessa and the general threat to the Latin states in the Levant, Pope Eugenius III (r. 1145-1153 CE) formally called for a crusade, what is now known as the Second Crusade, on 1 December 1145 CE. In the late Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church. [The Jews] called [the Arabs] to their aid and familiarized them with the relationship they had through the books of the [Old] Testament. The County of Edessa was the first of the crusader states to be established during and after the First Crusade. Originally appointed by the Fāṭimid caliphs of Cairo, the ʿAmmārid qāḍīs had acted with increasing autonomy ever since a series of catastrophes – not least the Saljūq invasions in the second half of the eleventh century – had forced the Fāṭimids to withdraw from Syria. Belonging to a similar date are the remains of two large fish pools, once used to keep carp for religious dedications to a fertility goddess. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. It existed from 1098 to 1146. He maintained the large and unstable borders through his martial prowess. For the Greek city, see, This article is about the ancient history of Edessa. It did not return to the Romans' control until the Byzantine Empire temporarily recovered the city in the mid-10th century after a number of failed attempts.[3]. Nur ad-Din continued to consolidate his empire, and he took Antioch on 29 June 1149 CE and then captured Raymond, the Count of Edessa, thus bringing an end to the County of Edessa in 1150 CE. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. The County of Edessa (Latin: Comitatus Edessanus) was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. [11], According to the Chronicle of Edessa, a Syriac chronicle written after 540, the cathedral church of Edessa was founded immediately after the end of the Diocletianic Persecution and the 313 Letter of Licinius, which ended the general persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. There existed an Armenian principality, the basis of which economy was transit trade. Roman emperor Caracalla (r. 211-217 CE) was rather less friendly and summoned Abgar VIII to Rome and imprisoned him in the hopes of turning Edessa into a useful platform from which to launch an invasion of Parthia, but nothing came of the plan. The County of Edessa, one of the Crusader states set up after the success of the First Crusade, was centred on the city, the crusaders having seized the city from the Seljuks. (ibid, 231). Thread starter PLrc; Start date Dec 7, 2020; Menu Crusader Kings III Available Now! Another important relic, and one considered of vital importance to the city's well-being, was the Mandylion icon. An unsuccessful Sasanian siege occurred in 544. When Baldwin left to become ruler of Jerusalem, he bestowed the county, under his suzerainty, on… The Crusade was led by the German king Conrad III (r. 1138-1152 CE) and Louis VII, the king of France (r. 1137-1180 CE) but before the western army could arrive, Edessa was in still greater trouble. Then a more permanent political situation was arrived at when the Seljuk Muslims won significant victories in Asia Minor against Byzantine armies, notably at the Battle of Manzikert in ancient Armenia in August 1071 CE. This kingdom was established by Arabs from the northern Arabian Peninsula and lasted nearly four centuries (c. 132 BC to A.D. 214), under twenty-eight rulers, who sometimes called themselves "king" on their coinage. Edessa was situated on a ridge in the middle of a ring of hills surrounded by a fertile plain, and was therefore considered to be favourably situated. There are some portions of the city’s fortification walls still in situ and many tombs and mosaics from Late Antiquity and early-medieval Edessa. Remarkably Preserved 1,800-Year-Old Mosaic Depicting the Dead Is Unearthed in Turkey, The earliest record of a Christian church at, According to Theophanes, a Jewish merchant transports the pieces of the fallen, The Emirs of Mayyafariqin and Harran attack the, The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture, Astrological Works of Theophilus of Edessa. The officers (or great officers) of the County of Edessa were the appointed officials in charge of various aspects of the government of the county. The majority of these mosaics are from the rich upper classes, and they often show scenes of daily life or representations of the tomb’s occupants and their family. In 1890, the population of Edessa consisted of 55,000, of which the Muslim population made up 40,835.[31]. Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It was retaken by the Arabs, and then successively held by the Greeks, the Armenians, the Seljuq dynasty (1087), the Crusaders (1099), who established there the County of Edessa and kept the city until 1144, when it was again captured by Imad ad-Din Zengi, and most of its inhabitants were allegedly slaughtered together with the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa). Although [the Arabs] were convinced of their close relationship, they were unable to get a consensus from their multitude, for they were divided from each other by religion. Gûrja, Shâmôna, Habib, and others under Diocletian. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Louis VII . When Constantinople was sacked in 1204 CE during the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE), the Mandylion was taken as a prize to France, where it was ultimately destroyed during the chaos of the French Revolution (1789-1799 CE). Ancient Edessa is the predecessor of modern Urfa (Turkish: Şanlıurfa; Kurdish: Riha‎; Arabic: الرُّهَا‎, romanized: ar-Ruhā; Armenian: Ուռհա, romanized: Urha), in the Şanlıurfa Province, Turkey. Even more significantly, accompanying the Mandylion was a letter which, itself considered a holy relic, stated that so long as the city was in possession of the Mandylion it would never be taken by an enemy army. In 1031 Edessa was given up to the Byzantines under George Maniakes by its Arab governor. Stewards Of The Poor: The Man of God, Rabbula, and Hiba in Fifth-Century... Jesus, King of Edessa: Jesus discovered in the historical record, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Cartwright, Mark. Zebra Whisperer: Haleplibahce Mosaics of Edessaby Ronnie Jones III (CC BY-NC-SA). In 242 CE Edessa became the capital of the Roman province of Osroene. Thence came to us in the second century the famous Peshitta, or Syriac translation of the Old Testament; also Tatian's Diatessaron, which was compiled about 172 and in common use until Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (412–435), forbade its use. During the Crusades, it was the capital of the County of Edessa. Edessa is not now to be found on maps of the Near East; instead there is Urfa, the Turkish name for the former Christian city lying in the upper region of the Euphrates valley some two hundred and fifty kilometres from the Mediterranean. Edessa itself had about 10 000 inhabitants, but the rest of the county consisted mostly of fortresses. Moreover, Nestorian bishops are said to have resided at Edessa as early as the 6th century. Atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa, assisted at the First Council of Nicaea (325). Unable to visit in person, Christ pressed his face against a cloth, which left an impression, and then sent the cloth to Abgar. In the on-off wars between Persia and the Byzantine Empire (the eastern half of the Roman Empire), Edessa was once more attacked in 544 CE, this time by Chosroes I (r. 531-579 CE), but again the city stood firm. So they departed, taking the road through the desert to Tachkastan to the sons of Ishmael. Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. [18][19][20] Under him Christianity became the official religion of the kingdom. County of Edessa - why not duchy? The city had been an early adopter of Christianity in the 2nd century CE with the first recorded church being already active in 202 CE. In that period a certain one of them, a man of the sons of Ishmael named Mahmet, a merchant, became prominent. Later, the Ilkhanate sent troops to Edessa in 1260 at which point the town voluntarily submitted to them. The Byzantine Empire regained control in 1031, though it did not remain under their rule long and changed hands several times before the end of the century. Orpheus Mosaic: Edessa/Urda/Haleplibahçe Mosaicsby Ronnie Jones III (CC BY-NC-SA). It seems most likely that the first coins stuck in crusader Edessa were issued by Baldwin’s successor and cousin, Baldwin II. [citation needed] Sebeos writes of a Jewish delegation going to an Arab city (possibly Medina) after the Byzantines conquered Edessa: Twelve peoples [representing] all the tribes of the Jews assembled at the city of Edessa. [6] The Roman army was defeated and captured in its entirety by the Persian forces, including Valerian himself, an event which had never previously happened. Conquered by the Muslim Arabs c. 638 CE, it would be incorporated into the Byzantine Empire from 944 CE. The Armenian chronicler Sebeos, bishop of Bagratid Armenia writing in the 660s, gives the earliest narrative accounts of Islam in any language today. With the capital only lightly defended, Zengi redirected his army, invading and capturing the city after the Siege of Edessa in 1144. The territory of the County of Edessa straddled the middle section of the Euphrates River, contained several important castles such as Ranculat and Ravendan, and provided valuable foodstuffs for the Latin East, as the Crusader-created states were known. Whatever the origins of the story, the important fact was that the people of Edessa, along with many others in the Christian world, believed it to be true. The city once again benefitted from its favourable position on trade routes, being on the only official route between the Roman and Parthian Empires (247 BCE - 224 CE). County of Edessa 1135 locator-es.svg 787 × 959; 130 KB. It's pretty clear for me why neither the County of Edessa nor the Duchy of Antioch called themselves kingdoms - because they wouldn't obtain a pope's approval of coronation. Thus Heraclius, emperor of the Byzantines, gave the order to besiege it. Unlike the other Crusader states, the County was landlocked; it was remote from the other states and was not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch. [6] The city was located at a crossroads; the east–west highway from Zeugma on the Euphrates to the Tigris, and the north–south route from Samosata (modern-day Samsat) to the Euphrates via Carrhae (modern-day Harran) met at the ridge where Edessa was located.[6]. As the power of Rome grew, Osroene became a dependency within the Roman Empire, with Pompey the Great (106-48 BCE) notably granting King Abgar II (r. 68-53 BCE) an enlarged territory. County of Edessa was one of the crusader states founded druing the first crusade. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around Edessa, a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity. [30] Not long after, the Mongols had made their presence known in Edessa in 1244. In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa had evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, and established the first Churches in the Sasanian Empire. Baldwin I also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. (quoted in Riley-Smith, 230-1). The city was situated on the banks of the Daysan River (Latin: Scirtus; Turkish: Kara Koyun), a tributary of the Khabur, and was defended by Şanlıurfa Castle, the high central citadel. Vampires and other savage beasts ran and entered the city at night in order to feast on the flesh of the massacred, and it became the abode of jackals; for none entered there except those who dug to discover treasures. As metropolis of Osroene, Edessa had eleven suffragan sees. After Edessa had been recaptured, Al-Kamil ordered the destruction of its Citadel.

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